Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 37                 ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Reactive Ester-urethane Prepolymer as Bioadhesive:


Synthesis and Evaluation


N. Sheikh1, H. Mirzadeh2 and A.A. Katbab3

(1) Gamma Irradiation Centre, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran, I.R. Iran

(2) Department of Polymeric Biomaterials, Iran Polymer Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran, I.R. Iran

(3) Polymer Engineering Department, Amir Kabir University, Tehran, I.R. Iran




Reactive urethane prepolymer, as a base material for the process of gluing in medicine, has been studied. For this purpose castor oil and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were used as polyol and diisocyanate components to synthesize the isocyanate terminated urethane prepolymer. The molecular structure of this prepolymer was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vapour pressure osmometry (VPO). The obtained infrared spectrum confirmed the presence of free NCO groups bonded to the prepolymer backbone. The wetting behaviour of the synthesized prepolymer was evaluated by surface tension measurement. The surface behaviour of the cured thin films of the prepolymer was characterized using contact angle measurements. The cytotoxicity of the cured prepolymer film was evaluated by in vitro cell culture experiment. Results showed a compatible cell response with no signs of toxicity.


Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 914                               ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



A Thermoplastic Rubber Composition for Medical Purposes


O.O. Nikolaev1, V.B. Urhanov1, V.P. Britov1, A.D. Babaev1, V.V. Bogdanov 1 and H. Mirzadeh2

(1) Saint‑Petersburg State Institute of Technology, Saint‑Petersburg, Russia

(2) Department of Polymeric Biomaterials, Iran Polymer Institute, Tehran, I.R. Iran




The rheology, vulcanizational, and the physico‑mechanical properties of a composition of siloxane rubber and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene are discussed. It is shown that such materials combine elasticity and strength. Inclusions of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in siloxane matrix, with large‑sized globular structure, imparts material a good impact resistance property. Compositions developed may be used as polymer inserts for new generation of endoprosthetic appliances for hip joints.


Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 1520                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Synthesis of Azo Dyes Based on a‑Naphthol‑formaldehyde


Oligomer and Their Application on Textile Fibres


A.P. Naik1, K.R. Desai1 and H.S. Patel2

(1) Department of Chemistry, South Gujarat University, Surat‑ 395 007, India

(2) Department of Chemistry, S.P. University, Vallabh Vidhyanagar, India




This paper reports the synthesis of oligomeric dispersed dyes based on a‑naphthol‑formaldehyde (NF) oligomer by coupling of various diazonium salt to a‑NF oligomer. a‑NF oligomer was prepared by the condensation of a‑naphthol with formaldehyde in presence of oxalic acid. To achieve suitable oligomer in the present study, several variables namely molar ratios of reactants, temperature, time and catalyst have been optimized in the synthesis. A series of oligomeric azo dyes have been prepared by coupling various diazonium salts of aromatic amines to a‑NF oligomer. Their dyeing on polyester, nylon and wool resulted in attractive hues on fibres. In this study of oligomeric azo‑NF dyes the dyeing of the fibres completed in short time and most important is that no patches were observed on the fibres, while earlier reported oligomeric dyes form patches on the fibre. They were characterized in terms of their softening points, yield, colour, solubility and UV-visible spectra. Structure-property relationships are discussed and dyeing on poly-ester (PET), nylon‑6,6 and wool are assessed to have excellent fastness properties.

Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 2128                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Preparation and Properties of Poly(urethane-imide)s Derived


from Diisocyanates Containing Build-in Imide Rings


H. Yeganeh and M. Barikani

Department of Polyurethane and Special Substances, Iran Polymer Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran, I.R. Iran




Poly(urethane-imide)s were prepared by polycondensation reaction of four imides containing diisocyanates with poly(tetramethylene oxide)glycol. Synthetic procedures for the preparation of the diisocyanates were described. The chemical structures of the monomers and polymers obtained were character-ized by IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectroscopies. The physical properties of polymers including solution viscosity, solubility properties, thermal stability and thermal behaviour were studied as well. The polymers showed excellent solubility in polar aprotic solvents such as DMF, DMAc and NMP. Their inherent viscosities were in the range of 0.500.55 dL/g. T10 % obtained as a criterion of thermal stability was in the range of 316335 ºC for the polymers.

Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 2932                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Kinetics Study of Bisphenol A Synthesis by


Condensation Reaction


A. Rahimi and S. Farhangzadeh

Department of Polymer Science & Catalysts, Iran Polymer Institute, P. O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran, I.R. Iran




Bisphenol A (BPA) is the most important bisphenols, which is used industrial-ly for the manufacture of polycarbonate resins and epoxy resins. These Two applications have achieved greatest significance in recent years and consume over 90% of the BPA output. BPA was prepared in our laboratory by condensation reaction of acetone with excess phenol in presence of an acid catalyst and promoter in high yield and high state of purity at optimum conditions of variables. In this paper we discuss the mechanism and kinetics aspects of BPA condensation reaction to acquire a better understanding of the course of the reaction.



Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 3343                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Characterization of Microcapsules Prepared by Interfacial


Polycondensation of Methylene Bis(phenyl isocyanate) with


Hexamethylene Diamine


E. Jabbari

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Controlled Delivery Systems for Bioactive Agents, School of Biomedical Engineering,

Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, I.R. Iran




Polyurea microcapsules containing 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxy-methyl)acetamide as the active agent were prepared by the method of interfacial polycondensation with methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) as the multifunctional isocyanate, hexamethylene diamine as the diamine, and anionic sodium lignin sulphonate as the emulsifying agent. Thermal stability of the microcapsules was investigated with a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled to a mass spectrometer and surface topography of the microcapsules was investigated with atomic force microscopy. The release behaviour of the microcapsules was studied by extraction in deionized water or calcium chloride aqueous solution, drying under ambient conditions, and examining with scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that as calcium chloride is added to the aqueous suspension of microcapsules containing anionic sodium lignin sulphonate as the surfactant, a gel phase is formed. This gel phase encompasses the microcapsules and increases the stability and modifies the release behaviour of the microcapsules.

Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 4552                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Finite Element Analysis of a 6.4514 Bias Tire


Under Contact Load


M.H.R. Ghoreishy

Department of Rubber Engineering and Processing, Iran Polymer Institute, P.O.Box 14965/115, Tehran, Iran




This research work is devoted to development of a non-linear finite element model for a bias tire under inflation pressure and contact loads. The model was developed by a pre-processor program for NSTAR which is the non-linear module of COSMOS/M software. Three-dimensional isoparametric brick elements with total Lagrangian formulation have been used to construct the finite element mesh of the tire model. Applying appropriate rim displacement toward a rigid surface simulated the contact load. The stress-strain relationships of composite sections (plies, breaker and bead) are described by linear orthotropic constitutive equation while Mooney-Rivlin incompressible model was used for the description of the behaviour of rubbery parts. The analysis was performed in a Lagrangian framework to take the geometrical non-linearity of large deformation of tire into account in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iterative procedure to solve the final set of working equations. Comparisons of the numerical results with laboratory measured tire deformations and also available tire standards, confirm the general suitability of the developed mathematical model.


Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 5358                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



Synthesis and In Vitro Hydrolytic Degradation of Polyglycolide


and Its l‑Lactide Copolymer


J. Mohammadi‑Rovshandeh1 and M.N. Sarbolouki2

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Pardis‑e‑Chooka),

University of Tehran, Rezvanshahr, Gilan, I.R. Iran

(2) Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran




In this study homo- and copolymers of glycolide and l‑lactide were synthesized and subjected to in vitro hydrolytic degradation. Glycolide and l‑lactide were prepared from glycolic and l‑lactic acid, respectively. Stannous octoate was used as polymerization catalyst. Poly(l‑lactide) with Mw=9.4105 and a polydispersity of 1.89 was synthesized and characterized. Also copolymers of l‑lactide and glycolide were prepared. Polyglycolide and its lactide copolymers with high proportion of glycolide do not dissolve in organic solvents. Degradation studies were conducted at 37 ºC and pH=7.35. The concentration of released glycolic acid was determined by chromotropic acid reagent. Purified polyglycolide powder shows a fast degradation profile in the first 10 days, after which it levels off. A copolymer obtained from 10 mol% l‑lactide and 90 mol% glycolide shows different degradation pattern as polyglycolide, because of its amorphous nature it exhibits a higher degradation rate.


Iranian Polymer Journal / Volume 10 Number 1 (2001) 5965                             ISSN: 1026-1265/2001



A Novel Synthesis and Characterization of Poly[4-imino(N-4-


ethylbenzoate)benzene p-styrenesulphonate] and the Investigation


on Polymer Ability for Drug Release


A. Khazaei, M.A. Zolfigol and N. Abedian

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, I.R. Iran




The present paper describes the release of benzocaine from polymer carrier. The chemically controlled release method has been applied in which the benzocaine (drug) with active group (NH2) links up with the spacer group (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde) by imine bond formation. The resulting schiff base reacts with the monomer p-styrenesulphonyl chloride. The obtained monomer is polymerized by AIBN as an initiator at the temperature range 6070 ºC. The obtained polymer was identified by IR and NMR spectroscopies. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used for determination of average molecular weight of drug pendant polymer. The hydrolysis of drug polymer conjugates was carried out in cellophane membrane dialysis bag containing aqueous buffer solution (pH 1.2) at 37 ºC. Detection of hydrolysis solution by UV spectroscopy showed that the drug can be released by hydrolysis of imine bond between the drug and spacer group.